Lithium is an element in the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries. It is it the lightest of all metals and due to its high electrochemical potential it is a valuable component of high energy density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Deemed a critical mineral by governments, sources of lithium form a key consideration in the transition to a low carbon economy and the adoption of electric vehicles. The two main conventional sources of lithium are brines and hard rock mining of granitic pegmatites. Shallow aquifer brines have been historically developed utilizing evaporation ponds (salars) which have a significant environmental impact, and an extended evaporation period which limits production. Hard rock mining is a carbon intensive process involving open pit mining which has significant environmental and social impacts.